Thursday, November 4, 2010

More Paintings from the Exposition Universelle de 1889

For the recent Millennial Contest, I displayed 41 images of paintings exhibited at the Paris Exposition Universelle de 1889 (40 in the contest, plus the Portrait of Augustus Saint-Gaudens by Kenyon Cox shown in the clues).  Those images, however, provided just a small representation of the paintings on view at that particular World's Fair.

The works of art juried into the exhibit were divided into five classes:  1. Oil Paintings;  2. Paintings other than oil and designs;  3. Sculpture and engraving in medals;  4. Architecture;  5. Engraving and lithography.  The total exhibit of each country in all classes was as follows:  France, 2,777;  Algeria, 65; Germany, 101;  Austria-Hungary, 159;  Belgium, 300;  Denmark, 248;  Spain, 179;  United States, 572 (336 of which were paintings);  Finland, 77;  Great Britain, 552;  Greece, 91;  Italy, 327;  Norway, 143;  Netherlands, 288;  Roumania, 59;  Russia, 205;  Servia, 26;  Sweden, 228;  Switzerland, 168.  There were also about 125 exhibits from the several South American countries.

In addition there was an exhibition called the Centennial of French Art, in which were shown the best examples of the nation's art from 1789 to 1889, gathered from museums and private collections, in seven departments, as follows:  Painting, 652;  water-colors and designs, 558;  miniatures and fans, 76;  sculpture, 140;  engraving on medals, 129;  architecture, 376; engraving and lithography, 465.  The French Water-Color Society, too, had a special exhibition of 463 numbers, and the French Pastel Society of about 300 numbers.¹

That is nearly 10,000 pieces of art in a single exhibit!

I relied heavily upon the book Paris 1889: American Artists at the Universal Exposition for the paintings I chose for the contest.  The Exposition of 1889 was very important for the reputation of American art, and with the information more readily available for the United States than other countries, it was natural to focus mainly on the American painters.  Sadly, many of the paintings exhibited by the Americans are unlocated at this time - some have even been destroyed.  Hopefully, as appreciation for the paintings of this period continues to increase, more of the original works will resurface as heirs realize the importance of the paintings handed down through their families.  Already, in the twenty years since the publication of Paris 1889, several of the "lost" paintings have come to auction, including both of the paintings by Elizabeth Jane Gardner shown in connection with the blog contest (Too Imprudent and The Farmer's Daughter).

Below is an additional selection of paintings from the Exposition Universelle 1889.  So many more artists than pictured here participated in the exhibit including Frederic Lord Leighton, Benjamin Constant, James Tissot, Jean Béraud, Peder Severin Krøyer, Cecilia Beaux, Tony Robert-Fleury, Édouard Dantan, Gustave Courtois, Louise Breslau, Carl Larson, Viggo Johansen, Edward Burne-Jones, Henry Moore, James Jebusa Shannon, Alexei Harlamoff, Stanhope Forbes, Max Liebermann, Berthe Morisot, Gustav Klimt, etc..  Truly, it was an amazing gathering of talent.

William Turner Dannat, The Quartette, 1884

Anders Zorn,  A Fisherman - St. Ives, 1888

Julius Gari Melchers, Shepherdess, c. 1889

Julius Gari Melchers, The Sermon, 1886

Childe Hassam, Twilight; Twilight in Paris, c. 1888

Francis Davis Millet, A Difficult Duet, 1886

Alfred Bryant Copeland, Salle François Ier, Cluny Museum, 1885

Theodore Robinson, The Forge, 1886

Walter Gay, The Weaver, 1886

Walter Gay, Charity, 1889

Charles Frederick Ulrich, In the Land of Promise, c. 1884

Charles Stanley Reinhart, Awaiting the Absent, 1888

Jules Bastien-Lepage, Thames, London, 1882

Jules Bastien-Lepage, Joan of Arc, 1879

Edwin Lord Weeks, The Rajah of Jodhpur, c. 1888

Kenyon Cox, Flying Shadows, 1883

Charles François Daubigny, Solitude, 1869

Julius LeBlanc Stewart, The Seine at Bougival, 1885

Julius LeBlanc Stewart, A Hunt Ball, 1885

Julius LeBlanc Stewart, A Hunt Supper, 1889

Henry Mosler, The Return, 1879
(displayed in conjunction with the Exposition at the Luxembourg Museum)

Henry Mosler, New Year's Morning, 1888

Henry Mosler, The Last Sacraments, 1884

Henry Mosler, Harvest Festival

William Merritt Chase, A City Park, c. 1888

William Merritt Chase, Portrait of Mother and Child; The First Portrait, 1888

William Merritt Chase, Peace, Fort Hamilton

William Merritt Chase, Gowanus Bay, c. 1887

Howard Russell Butler, Seaweed Gatherers, 1886

Walter MacEwen, A Ghost Story, 1887

Arthur Wesley Dow, At Evening, 1888

Gaines Ruger Donoho, La Marcellerie, 1882

Léon Augustin l'Hermitte, La Moisson, 1883

Walter MacEwen, Returning from Work, c. 1885

Henry F. Farny, Danger, 1888

William Anderson Coffin, Early Moonrise

Elizabeth Jane Gardner, Too Imprudent, c. 1886

Thomas Eakins, Professor George H. Barker, 1886
(cut down from original 3/4 length figure

George Hitchcock, Maternity, 1889

George Hitchcock, Annunciation, c. 1887

John Leslie Breck, Autumn, Giverny; The New Moon

Carl Gutherz, Lux Incarnationis, 1888

Carl Gutherz, Memorialis

Marc Gabriel Charles Gleyre, The Bath, 1868

Gustave Boulanger, Hercules at the Foot of Omphale, 1861

John Douglas Patrick, Brutality, 1888

John George Brown, Morning Papers, 1889

Julien Le Blant,  La Batalion Carré,  Affaire de Fougères 1793, 1880

Robert Koehler, The Strike, 1886

Robert Bolling Brandegee, Portrait of Montague Flagg, 1887

George Peter Alexander Healy, Portrait of M. Brownson

Robert William Vonnoh, Studio Comrade, 1888

Albert Edelfelt, Portrait of Louis Pasteur, 1885

Robert Swain Gifford, Near the Coast, c. 1885

Ralph Wormeley Curtis, View at Venice, 1884

Elihu Vedder, The Last Man, 1886

Elihu Vedder, The Fates Gathering in the Stars, 1887

Thomas Alexander Harrison, The Amateurs, 1882-83

Thomas Alexander Harrison, Castles in the Air; Castles in Spain, c. 1882

Thomas Alexander Harrison, The Wave, c. 1885

Thomas Worthington Whittredge, The Old Road to the Sea; Harvest of Seaweed, c. 1884

Thomas Worthington Whittredge, A Brook in the Woods; I Come from Haunts of Coon and Hearn, c. 1889

Eugene Lawrence Vail, On the Thames, 1886

Douglas Stephen Volk, After the Reception, 1887

Giovanni Boldini, Portrait of Emiliana Concha de Ossa, 1888

Joseph Foxcroft Cole, Abbajona River, Mass., c. 1880

Julian Alden Weir, Portrait of Artist's Child, 1887

Vilhelm Hammershøi, Young Girl Sewing, 1887

Wilder M. Darling, Grandma's First Visit, c. 1888

Enoch Wood Perry, Jr., Mother and Child, 1881

Rosalie Lorraine Gill, The Orchid (detail), 1889

Alexander Helwig Wyant, Keene Valley, 1880s

Charles Harold Davis, The Valley (Evening), 1886

Wyatt Eaton, Ariadne, 1888

Edward Henry Potthast, Study: A Young Brittany Girl;  Sunshine, 1889

Edward Lamson Henry, The Latest Village Scandal, 1885

Otto Henry Bacher, Richfield Center, Ohio, 1885

Peter Alfred Gross, Road to the Spring (Liverdun)

John Singer Sargent, Portrait of the Misses B., The Daughters of Edward D. Boit, 1882

John Singer Sargent, Mrs. Benjamin Kissam

John Singer Sargent, Portrait of Mrs. Elliott Fitch Shepard, 1888

John Singer Sargent, Mrs. Henry White, 1883

John Singer Sargent, The Misses Vickers, 1884

Edward Emerson Simmons, Night, St. Ives Bay, 1889

Pascal-Adolphe-Jean Dagnan-Bouveret, Breton Women at a Pardon, 1887
(Won the Grand Prize)

Emile Friant, La Toussaint, 1888

Wilhelm Leibl, Drei Frauen in der Kirche (Three Women in Church), 1882

Frederick Arthur Bridgman, Fête of the Prophet at Oued-el-Kebir (Blidah), 1889

¹ Appletons' Annual Cyclopaedia and Register of Important Events of the Year 1889, (D. Appleton and Company, New York, 1890), p. 319.


Charley Parker said...

Wonderful post. Thanks!

Kunst Kommt Von Können said...

What a fantastic show with a very wide diversity of themes and composition. Good old days.

T. Adrian Hoffman said...

Blown away by this gallery! We forget the incredibly high standards set by our recent past.

Mike Notko said...

Too bad you cannot make a time machine out of a DeLorean... Would have been something to behold...

Ana Leal Anguita said...

Muy buena entrada. Un saludo

Audrey Bunt said...

Thank you for a visual feast. Thoroughly enjoyed it

Neil said...

A brilliant show (glad I could not go, 10,000 works is just too much of me).

Thanks for the blog, best read on the web.

Lokelani Forrest said...

Absolutely wonderful to see such a fine display of masterpieces. No doubt, better IRL.

James Gurney said...

How did you find all these, Matthew? Were they all online, or did you have to find some of them in books? Anyway, it's a rare treat to see them all together.

innisart said...

Hey Jim-

All of the images here, and almost all that were in the original contest, were culled online. The hard part was knowing who to look for, but that didn't guarantee finding the artwork. Catalogs for the American entries to the exposition are available for download through several university library databases, which made searching for the American paintings easier (except when painting titles changed over time). Appleton's Annual Cyclopaedia is also online, and it lists medal winners from the various countries in 1889, but not the pieces for which they won. That was at least a start. I also relied on Weisberg's Beyond Impressionism, and made some searches based on educated guesses about who I would have expected to be in the exhibit; that line of research didn't always pan out unfortunately.

One painting I am 75% sure was in the exhibit, but which I could not verify was Peder Krøyer's "Hip, hip, hurra!" from 1888. I know Krøyer was in the exhibit (as were other Skagen painters) and by the description of the painting on display it was that work, but I couldn't verify it.

It would have been a remarkable show!

jerry sumpter said...

Thank you Matthew. So glad to find your blog... and shared interests!

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Nancy Hall said...

Wow. It's wonderful to see all these images. I'm also impressed with your scholarship...great job.